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1 This cycle provides suggestions on the precautions to be taken against the toxic, open fire and growing market of the dangers presented by refrigeration systems containing ammonia. These are much more likely to be discovered by the responsible for the application of the to cool the meals and warehouse stores of distribution. It applies to the whole of the program not really the compressor Home fundamentally. It provides temporary measures of advice on issues of interest to the responsible for the application of review of Bull bullshit waiting 4434:1980.
2 Annex 1 describes the general concepts of the refrigeration, Annex 2 provides information on the results of the program of special travel carried out in 1983 by the Inspectorate of stock (F1) to review the current criteria in the sector of meals and in Annex 3 provides a detailed help on the electrical requirements. The agents of application should not really to insist too much on the hazards of ammonia has compared with various other refrigerants.
3 ammonia is a gas chemically reactive which is very soluble in drinking water and is much lighter than the air flow (vapor density of 0.59 of the air). Cold vapors (age.g. of leaks) may nevertheless end up to be more dense than the flow of air. Although there are situations of advertising have to hazardous concentrations of ammonia in the United Kingdom, there is little to fatal incidents possess. The ammonia is generally characterized by a stench ordinary and certainly is detectable by most of the people to the amounts of approximately 50 ppm in the atmosphere. Although the employees become the understanding of this impact and in the previous have been able to operate without problems in rises up to 70 ppm, the limit on advertising for the suggested ammonia is certainly 25 ppm Currently, 8 hour TWA (0.0025%) and the limit on advertising in the short term is 35 ppm, 10 minutes of TWA. At 400 ppm, most of the people in the knowledge and the instant throat nasal region of discomfort, but suffer no long-term adverse effects after 30-60 minutes of advertising. A known level of 700 ppm causes discomfort to the eyes instantaneous, and a known level of 1 700 ppm (0.17%) will place on several occasions to respiratory problems and can eventually be fatal after approximately 30 minutes of advertising.
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Advertising in concentrations exceeding 5 000 ppm (0.5%) for intervals short enough can cause a loss of life. Following the results of the ammonia varies between people, and the bulk of the dose-response results referred to above are more likely to become those experienced by the users even more vulnerable sector of the population.
An expanding market and fire
4 Ammonia forms a flammable mixture with air at concentrations ranging between 16 and 25 % v/v. There have nevertheless been extremely little motivation of explosions including ammonia compressor homes in the United Kingdom and all reported events included loss of ammonia under maintenance of vegetables.
The existing guidelines
5 current assistance on the precautions that must be taken to the refrigeration plant to the ammonia can be found at: British regular: 1980 “Requirements 4434 for refrigeration Security: Part 1, General”. The requirements (in particular from the f ire and perspective of overvoltage) are comparable to those of the previous (1 969) Edition. A complete revision of the Bull Shit 4434 is generally the acquisition place nevertheless.
6 in normal conditions of people will not be able to tolerate the concentrations of ammonia to even a fraction of the flammability. The security measures appropriate are mainly those that are relevant against the harmful results in congested areas and to function where the unplanned exposure are direct, such as repair and maintenance function, including in particular the essential oil and the fill up depleting. Security measures against the fireplace and growth of the market will nevertheless be eventually be adapted, in the unoccupied areas such as compressor houses and not treated as chilly stores of flowers where accumulations of fumes may go unnoticed.
Safety measures against the risk of toxic effects
of the respiratory protection equipment
7 any person to enter in an area in which ammonia vapor is likely to be present at a significant level (e.g. to save or diagnostic purposes) must be autonomous or device of respiration of vol. This is not really consist of regular appointments of zones of flowers etc. An appropriate and taken care of established should eventually be easily installed near the correctly, but outside, any particular region in which high amounts of .the ammonia vapors can occur. In no case should anyone enter in a specific region where a flammable can become focus gas present. Information of appropriate equipment are included in Type 2501 “Certificate of Acceptance (the inspiration and the expiry equipment)”, published by the HSE each year. Discover the help Notices GS 5 concerning access in limited areas.
8 Tools of respiratory protection suitable must be worn by each person holding out design maintenance work on any program where there is a risk of launch of the ammonia. Total container with type of respirators meets a (blue) storage containers offer a great security in atmospheres up to 2 per cent or 20 000 ppm of focus for an hour. Function in such a purpose is usually more likely to businesses lead to the soreness credited to epidermis Discomfort quickly as ammonia dissolved in sweat.
A list of appropriate speed is provided in the Form 2502 “accreditation certificate (canister gas”. Respiratory protection devices) of important careers waterproof matches could in the end be required if the gas cannot become withdrawn.
9 Any person who is likely to require to use the respiratory system of defensive equipment must be properly trained in its use and must be fully aware of its limits. The devices must finish by be preserved, kept clean and analyzed at least once a full month. Appropriate information should become held. If the container respirators are used it must eventually be an effective program to determine when the storage containers must eventually be restored.
The evacuation procedures and crisis
10 lt is essential that a crisis procedure is attracted to clear up what information the exact functions of all the members of the staff and the modalities of evacuation, rescue, the initial aid, place remote location etc. It is permanently in particular essential that the escape techniques are clearly established and frequently practiced where refrigeration systems are in the areas of exploitation. A common technique that can become appropriate is normally to make use of the chimney of security alarm provided that the factors of actuation are instantly accessible to operating areas. The workers eventually must be informed not really to the strategy the fumes of the clouds. (Clouds can frequently of steam aspect because of the air conditioning of the released gas).
11 Adequate sheets should be supported from grass, all correct areas at times. The employees affected significantly by the Ammonia away loading suffer eye and chaotic and cough and more quickly of piracy become disoriented. They must very clearly prior to the understanding of a secure leave therefore path.
The teaching in the seeds of the operation and maintenance of
12 All employees involved in the maintenance and the procedure of the seed must be properly trained. Education should cover not really fair general concepts of refrigeration but also including the factors related to the particular seed. This applies as much to companies of maintenance as an employer of personnel staff.
flower of location not designed for the outside location
13 in the case of seed of Refrigeration (web browser of seed not specifically designed for the Outside Zone) Advertising to air flow too low time could trigger the liquefaction of ammonia to inside the compressor leading to the prejudice of the compressor, which could be dangerous. This type of seed should accordingly eventually be located in a compressor using the safety measures home explained in Bull Shit 4434:1980 and listed below. Compressor-houses should, to the extent possible in an equitable manner, eventually be installed with surge mitigation (e.g. using sensitive of light weight roofing). Where kept sections are used as growing market mitigation freely, it should become superbly controlled (e.g. by stores) to prevent any infection harmful missiles in the case of a market in full growth.
14 ln in order to facilitate the provision of huge increase and mitigate air flow, Compressor-houses should incorporate at least one structure of exterior wall. The implantation of compressors in enclosed places, cellars and garages ., etc eventually must be avoided to the extent possible. The doorways between vegetable houses-Compressor or areas and other parts of the building should become self-closing and well adjusted.
Herb designed for the outside location
15 grow only designed for the conditions should be installed on the outside in particular. This installation should eventually be located in a secure location in the open the air flow with, if necessary, with the help of a climate of security Nederlander barn, which provides a framework for systematically type distributed minimum open comparative region to at least 50 per cent of the whole of the structure of the wall of the region.
Seed in rooms
16 as a general process of the quantity of seeds containing ammonia located in rooms and other populated areas should be minimized. Accessories such as increase of herbs and liquefied at percussion pushes each time as possible should eventually be located outside of the functional areas. The compressors are often strong and this is certainly another cause for not really having in the areas of exploitation.
17 compress or houses should be provided with adequate ventilation and adequate to meet the following requirements:
(1) regular aeration sufficiently the air flow in the long term should eventually be provided to prevent the accumulation of toxic levels of ammonia from operational loss (for example of farm, the glands etc). It is normally possible that the redrafted United Kingdom will require regular on the air flow of mechanized car rather than rely on somewhat obscure organic ventilation.
(2) Provision of emergency ventilation should be produced for enough flow of air mechanized for prevent the flammable ammonia/atmosphere combines accumulate in the event of a reasonably direct fails (operational or eg device is faulty). In these conditions, the objective should become to maintain concentrations below 25% of the lower limit energetic limit (Web browser 4%).
18 ventilation conditions required for a particular installation must be based on the type, capacity, the operating conditions and the area of the place and may require the individual assessment by a professional of ventilation with appropriate experience. However, the continuation of the general factors apply:
(1) long duration of mechanical ventilation or normal, or a mixture of the two, could eventually be used for regular or crisis of ventilation. Mechanical ventilation has begun by gas sensors or by hand (in the case of permanent vegetation) may also become used to the aeration (crisis Discover em funo of 26); and Annex 3 for the electrical safety of the functional program;
(2) The flow of air must release to a safe place in the open atmosphere;
(3) In examining the aeration to finish by be provided, the potential results of chilly on seed eventually must be taken into account (see EM funo of 12);
(4) The flow of air flow by groups around windows, doors, etc., or the start of the doors or windows should not be invoked for the breakdown;
(5) the formulas in the standard BS4434 To quantify the ventilation requirements are guidelines of inch based in implicit (e.g. they take presumptions zero accounts of the size of the space of leakage or price). The inspectors must notify that the formulas can eventually be used as a simple guide but the discernment in their complete software for a particular flower should eventually be stressful. This is normally especially essential with extremely huge systems when the flow of air required by the formulas becomes
(6) It should be noted that the regular budget of the ventilation provided by the formulas of Bull Shit 4434: 1980 is normally not designed to offer with extended releases from main vegetable faulty. Nevertheless, the other can be extremely unlikely to take place in properly designed, preserved and built of vegetables. Control of resources of contact and the judgment of vegetables (Discover paras 22-26) should also offer a security in such conditions. By managed handles of crisis decompression hand must become located in a secure environment and very easily available on place with the change or control of turning off the compressor.
The integrity of seed
19 There can be no serious problems of corrosion of the low pressure. Parts of seed and pipework credited for the accumulation of moisture or condensation. It can improve not detected which is usually late under not really succeeded in smoked covered and is certainly in particular on the quick vegetation which operate periodically and pass-through OoC. The general concepts relating to the basic security of pressure systems are adequate. The program must become fully analyzed by a capable person at regular intervals in respect of a system created. It must eventually be a maintenance plan effective.
20 All parts of refrigeration systems and in particular the piping should be positioned or maintained to minimize the risk of harm, for example by vehicles of lift fork. Piping and valves should eventually be the ski slopes to indicate their equipment and the function of obviously.
Unloading System of essential oil
21 good number of reports of incidents involving systems of the ammonia refrigeration have been the result of a malfunction of the program of oil drain (designed to catch the “Report” of the oil in the compressors). In many situations the essential oil is permanently exhausted by below the water and ammonia is permanently soaked with it. In addition, the essential oil is normally because it is normally cool viscous. In Purchase to minimize the risk to move away from this trigger the continuation of methods should become recommended:
(1) Where are involved and beaches brief observation sufficient from the drain is feasible drain plumbing of essential oil must be completed by a safe location and solids in the opening up atmosphere. Valves on any tube expansion should not really to expose the probability of liquefied ammonia getting captured; a drain or control device hydrostatic comfort of air flow at a safe place should become provided in areas between the distributors, as appropriate;
(2) A dual device control put in place should be provided in essential oil drains. In addition to the device manual, functional it should become an automated system to enclose the spring or the loaded device weight; and
(3) The use of catchpots drain the essential oil. These are a very useful feature of fresh flowers, but existing may not become of flowers improved. Conveniently before that the essential oil is permanently exhausted, the connections is finally chosen from water ammonia/essential oil FEEDLINE and the connections is normally heated electrically to the steam out of any ammonia that moves in the vapors to the low-pressure part of the program. When the connections is normally hot, it is normally identified also on the fumes part of the essential oil and can be used until after that.
The filling ammonia Point
22 The filling ammonia factors must eventually be located in safe and sound, good positions and, when broken down reasonably possible, in the open atmosphere. Filling of factors should become from the resources on the side located contact.
Measures of security against an expanding market and fireplace risk
resources to contact
23 All resources likely of Contact (nude fire etc) must be removed from the compressor homes or in the immediate vicinity of the exterior located herb.
24 Assistance on the electrical equipment for use in the atmospheres Spirit blows is potentially provided in RS 5345: Component 1: 1976 “Code of Practice for the selection, the maintenance and the establishment of the electrical equipment to make the use of in the Spirit blows potentially atmospheres, Strand 1, simple requirements for all the articles of the Code”; Bull Shit 4434: 1980, Conditions 13 “Electrical System”. The methods adopted by the above-mentioned documents vary.
25 As a general concept, electrical equipment should be located to the outside of the enclosure of the compressor in a secure area. However, when it is normally located in the region, it should become always in conformity with the assistance provided in EM funo of 27.
26 When the ammonia compressors and refrigeration place are located in the same space as the change in source of equipment for the site New Home Purchase would probably be difficult and costly. In such situations, domain Consultant Group (FCG) advise on the security measures of ideal protection in the particular case should become wanted.
Criteria for the selection of electrical appliances
27 The use of a electrical device in the equipment of the ammonia refrigeration vegetation provides been regarded as a special case because of the flammability characteristics of the gas (high LEL and range) and narrow volatile the reality that it can be detected at very low quantities in the sense of smell. This offer of lead in a quantity of choice which may eventually be considered during the choice of the electrical equipment for the ammonia vegetation and these are considered in the Annex 3.
28 refrigeration systems have associated risks that may need attention. They consist of’sUsually the risk of capture in the froidure chills and shops, the management of the articles and beautiful microbiological see complications associated with cooling towers used for the condenser.
Approach to Implementation
29 the enforcement agent should suggest that seeds of the ammonia refrigeration should comply with the help of Bull Shit 4434: 1980 amended and augmented by the information contained in this Circular. They should nevertheless proceed in the brain:
(1) The ammonia present a risk of toxic effects at concentrations much lower than those in which it presents any chimney fire all or risk of overvoltage. There have been 2 deaths of gassing between 1977 and 1983 in the United Kingdom but only 3 the motivation of ammonia/explosions in the last approximately 20 years;
(2) the potential implications of an event in conditions of damage to the staff, and the public in general should be assessed;
(3) Bull Shit4434 has been published in 1969 and initial has not been designed to ultimately be the subject of a retrospective, although improvements in installation dating from before the regular must have recommended, to the extent possible in a reasonable manner;
(4) analysis of the D983 visits strongly suggest that the poor conditions of the plant are discovered there is normally a insufficient attention to the often evacuation and emergency action; And
(5), where the agents of application meeting of companies of maintenance that they should help to make inquiries on the subject of their operation of procedures and education.
Additional information of
30 C is a complicated complex object and there are strong pressures of international trade organizations. Enforcement agents are suggested to search for the information about the field of Group of Experts of IFPI FCG) via the police officer of binding of the regional delivery (ELO), before taking into account the measures of application.
ammonia is used because a refrigerant due to thermodynamic properties particular which allow him all go to of heat much more efficiently than other refrigerant gas such see that halogenated hydrocarbons. It may be especially appropriate for the operation in the range around -30oC and OoC is therefore generally used for the meals of overall maintenance, the chill of liquids such as dairy products, the FTA and smooth, and in the beverages chemical substance sector. New systems continue to be put in place.
- A program of basic theory wants 4 elements:
(1) the evaporator;
(3) of the compressor condenser; and
(4) reducing valve
in the practice various other components such as oil separator, aftercooler, liquefied and drum of overvoltage liquefied receiver are detected. Pumps
3 The useful is produced to the refrigeration of the evaporator. Water ammonia at low pressure and low temperature therefore requires the temperature by spraying. The compressor is getting rid of this fumes which, by compressing, stimulates the thermal range of below above the normal. The sizzling hot gas under pressure provides the temperature by the condensation of a liquefied in the condenser. The high pressure liquefied gases passes through the device to control pressure reduction of the evaporator after this. On the control device is normally of the cooled water as some fumes a rocket off. The stay may be liquefied available to make the use of the evaporator.
4 In a practical program it is normally likely that there will be other elements of place. A separator of essential oil gets rid of Hung essential oil carried on from the compressor and either to the results it (pressurized) Crank-case or the guard to impoverish in a certain method. There may be a compressor Multi-stages of an intercooler. This can be cooled by blood loss high pressure liquefied gases to the low pressure part.
Downstream of the condenser is a recipient of the water in general. Downstream of the control device for the reduction is usually frequently discovered a drum spur which acts as a reservoir of water to cool liquefied and equalizes the request on the compressor and the condenser. The liquefied ammonia is usually attracted to the increase drum by a pump. Essential oil of drains could become discovered on spike percussion, liquefied receptors, and on huge plant life elsewhere. There are generally more likely to become a program of automated control on the whole but the oldest and most small of the vegetation.
A refrigeration system simple practice
- The objective was to gather information on a combination of the article of the facilities. Hundred and forty-eight returns had been used in the assessment that used the Edinburgh FCG micro-computer.
2 returns covered a wide range of procedures in the drinks and meals of the sectors. The most important of a sector was the dairy industry (source of drinking water chilled) with many of the pay has also to freeze the meals suppliers and chilly shops. In the beverage sector and air conditioning soft drinks were the first carbonators uses.
There was a wide range of other uses have been reported; the majority of the regions of the meal need the managed market below the normal at some time correct component of their procedure. A wide range of sizes of the installation of 45 kg to 45 tonne chargeweight had been reported, 13% had been more than 5 tonnes, 40% between 1 and 5 tonnes, 35% between 100 kg and 1 tonne and 12% 1 00 kg or below.
The oldest item reported has been pre-war and it was quite even spread of age from 1960 to today.
3 Ninety-nine percent of the facilities has obtained a space of independent compressor. Forty-nine percent have obtained the loading phase of the program in the area of the compressor and 38% have acquired to the outside. Twenty-seven per corner of the test could favorably eventually be determined as having the doorways to the outside of the building only. Thirty-six per dollar of additional compressor areas have not really had embrasures of doors to automatic closure and 17% have not really had doorways well adjusted. With the compressors in a separate space this can be a huge amount where also remarkably the Precautionary Measures The most elementary to prevent the spread of avoiding gas provides not really been used. Fifty-five percent obtained condensers installed above the level of the soil to the outside – usually on the roof.
This raises questions of security of access and to escape in case of emergency also.
4 Thirty-six per cent, had the evaporator in the workshop. (These had been generally point in the glossy meal freezers carbonators sector to the softness and the drinks plant). This method specifies the factors to the want for effective crisis of the techniques in the event of loss, it may be in the workshop in particular.
5 Only 3 per cent of the facilities has been recognized as having the pipes or grow capable of becoming broken by, for example, forklift trucks. The half of the whole of the study had plumbing not marked nonetheless. (Documents many forms recommended that would receive early interest).
6 lt proved out of the question to perform a meaningful analysis of the intended evacuation in the areas of the compressor. A common set up’semblaient rely mainly on the flow of air organic (can be helped by a little enthusiastic) regular ventilation. When there is a supply of degassing for events particularly, it were known to become an individual program that a 2 on the timeliness ordinary passionate of ventilation rather program. Only 23% of the installation of acquisition 2 price of air flow can be obtained and only fifty per cent of the air flow systems of any kind could become managed outside of the area of the compressor. Only fifty percent of these vents have been managed instantly.
7 Only 16% of the overall program has been carried out by charging a person on its have; the typical put in place was 2 guys. The essential oil has been carried out by an exhausting guy on its very own to 30% of any installation. At 51 per cent of all facilities, he was transported to the outside, even more than once a full month. Only 26% of the installation acquired spring-loaded valves or of an essential oil of program at the connections drains. Many of the rest acquired only a short stretch of tube from a boat including liquefied ammonia closed by a control device of solitaire. In 71% of situations where the drain of essential oil has been bad inspectors that the quite possible considered was the improvement of valves to automatic closure. The 30% of the installation where a guy does the essential oil depleting on its staff got No. 6, which included the respirator of any kind.
8 Forty-two per cent of the houses of the compressor acquired no of gas sensors. To sit was by the supplier the more common considerably (60%) of all systems of recognition. The many common provider period of dual per year demonstrates that the agreement of aid regular of the company. Ten-nine by piece of systems of the detector has been virtually never examined.
Fifty per cent of the installation of the detector level of exploitation had only 1 approximately.
Twenty-seven percent of the systems has not really close any right down the plant still just sounding the alarm. Ten percent of alarm systems of individual security has suffered no.
9 Sixty-six percent of room in the air compressor for the electrical installations were not fully equipped for zone 2 regularly where a large part of the same seed was under the control of the sensors. Sixty-five percent of all the compressor installation could ultimately be changed elsewhere outside the space of the compressor (in fact if just to the main source). Of the rest, the principal had been in the compressor coupling access or the area to it is through the space of the compressor.
10 Eighty-eight percent of all sites had 2 or more sets of respiratory safety of some type or kind. Six (4%) of installation known non-e to all. At 83% of sites there has been declared to become a certain type of schooling in the use of respiratory system security, but only 43% have obtained a kind of evaluation organized. Just 5 installation (3.4%) was there of possible restrictions of the space that was in conflict with the offer of respiratory safety and the main question seemed to eventually be access of up ladders or congested products of herb.
11 Forty-seven percent of sites have usually recovery for gettable General of of devices initial aid rather than precisely because of the ammonia.
12 Twenty-seven percent of the sites had Draeger (or equivalent) for the tests of the pipes of the Detector low concentrations of ammonia. Many others have known the sulfur stays or for discover of hydrochloric acidity little leakage.
13 Fifty-nine percent of facility has been preserved at least by the companies in part. Apart from a few major suppliers and installers of products there had been many regional institutions refrigeration technicians who just make an appearance once or twice in the study. No provided details about the gettable is certainly of the ordinary teaching or of the crafts of these companies.
14 Fifty-five percent of all sites, has made an appearance to possess the techniques of evacuation of crisis (43% used the fireplace alarm) but slightly fewer (50%), has made an appearance to provide no teaching in these methods. Only 24% made an appearance to possess a full recovery of the preparations. Twenty-two percent experienced the function has created systems that makes an appearance of vast and only 34% have obtained what has made an appearance to the user of seed effective the Education.
SCHEDULE 3 (paragraphs 1 and 26)
safety of electrical equipment in the ammonia and compressors of refrigeration plant
located in the Outside Plant
1 compressors and refrigeration herb located outside of the locations of door in conformity with em virtude of 14 of this cycle in any other case areas not dangerous will not normally require electrical devices specially protected.
Internally located plant
2 a movement graph of the simple of the requirements relating to the electrical equipment located in internal is provided in the’Seed product to this Annex. Functional methods are provided below.
Choice 1 – Use of electrical devices protected against overvoltage
3 classification of hazardous areas should be swept away by a capable person. Electrical equipment should after that eventually be chosen in compliance with Bull Shit 5345: Component 1: 1976 Section 2. The bulk of the houses-compressor should become regarded as Zone 2 areas. Type “D” growing market secured devices (including any crisis Evacuation disciples) will become appropriate for these locations.
Choice 2 – Recognition of the leaks by gas or detectors of Workers
4 ln this strategy, not the electrical equipment protected against explosions, with skills, can be used in a mixture with a available means of the separation of the source of electrical power easily. The technique to reach the last mentioned can eventually be achieved, either immediately after the recognition of a loss by a program of gas detector, or after a loss offers been recognized by the staff to the hand. The make use of these methods as an initial series of the protection is certainly limited to applications exclusively as regards the ammonia in the refrigeration plant life. This strategy is generally considered appropriate offered that the general concepts appointed in paras 10-17 are adopted and that sufficient accounts is really used from paras 5-9.
5 sensors must be positioned correctly in taking into account the physical characteristics of the plant room, the diagram of air flow in movement and the most likely sources of potential seapage. Credited with respect should eventually be paid for any inactive pockets or storage compartments. The knowledge offers has demonstrated that, in the special conditions, it is certainly feasible for frosty ammonia fumes to stratify at low amounts initially. Unless the occupant gives a sufficient experience within his personal company, it would become wise for him to consult a company that specializes in the style and configure systems of recognition of gas.
6 As a rough statement only, you can expect to find in the surroundings of sensors of the compressors and other elements not static of vegetables and at the level of the roof, where a detector by 36m2 of roof region would probably be sufficient, although more may be necessary if there is deep beams the creation of recesses. Usually, the goal is to ensure that the Ammonia is generally recognized and the equipment put in safety before concentrations reach a flammable power supply contact.
(This objective, which is certainly appropriate to “recognition” of a drip simply by the staff, is certainly a crucial importance in respect of the electrical equipment that is certainly not really designed specifically for finish by be anti-sparks, not the electrical equipment protected against explosions and electrical equipment with temperatures above 630Â°C).
7 detectors should be properly shielded explosion.
8 The sensors used are “pellistor” type and may be subject to a poisoning by air contaminants. They should become properly put in place and preserved and frequently examined accordingly. The procedure of the sensors must finish by be examined using mixtures of ammonia gas ordinary. Some bandages Trapezoidal belt comprising the antimony have been demonstrated to the toxin sensors and a regular decrease their response.
9 The sensors should be able to detect the concentrations of ammonia to 1% v/v or much less.
Connected electrical devices
10 accounts should be taken of the program of control, electrical control and the best of the circuits feasible level of failure to the security should be achieved to the extent that this is feasible reasonably. General assistance is normally included in Bull Shit 5304:
1975 “Backup of machines” in article 6.
11 The gadget of isolation(s), either manually or exploited, who slashes to the wide of the source of the electricity to the ammonia from vegetables, must be located in the space in an area not dangerous. It can be either a supplier of services or output of circuit breaker. If the requirements in paras 5-9 above possess, the been pleased continuation of suggestions in the paras 13-17 should become used. (Although that particular information have been used of Bull Shit 4434:1980, by method of example, they are designed to indicate the general concepts of this strategy and not really particular requirements -will possess, to identify in each particular case).
12 Interest will want to be paid for the control of additional circuits which fall within the area of flower and are not directly associated with the seed, e.g. Outlet Outlet stores for lightweight equipment.
Inhabited places continuously
13 the insulation of all electrical circuits must be carried out by separating the products located in an area not dangerous. These products will be managed by the control of the force to the outside of the place area instantly keys, or managed by a recognition program of gas referred to Step 14, and organized to provide alerts visible and clear to change the ventilation equipment of crisis or crisis light (if configured). Any electrical equipment which is normally necessary to operate in the area gettable after a loss offers been recognized, such as the flow of the air of crisis and light tools, should become guaranteed for the dangerous region in which it is normally located well, area of Web Browser 2. A few areas of air compressor are staffed. Recognition of the loss by suppliers is certainly fair reliable if they are constantly present in the space gettable. If for example they have various other responsibilities, or keep the specific region for food, etc, or make use of a Sound object Sanctuary after that the response rate is certainly the most likely to become much slower than that of the automatic sensors.
Unmanned plant rooms
14 of all electrical circuits lsolation should be carried out by separating the gadgets located in an area not dangerous and controlled by one or several sensors in ammonia gas appropriate that should also be prepared to give a visual indication and clear the alarm and to change on the tools for the ventilation and/or crisis the light, if installed. The venting atmosphere should eventually be dismissed to the outside of the building in a way not really to trigger the stress or risk to individuals in the field of the building. Signal The remoteness eventually must be assigned to the concentrations of ammonia below 25% of the LEL and a safety alarm placing of 1.5% v/v followed by the circuit of solitude to 3% v/v is recommended.
15 maintenance personnel are required to enter unmanned seed adequate means of rooms and output should be offered.
16 Personal safety including the respiratory apparatus, and impermeable is part probably, may be necessary in any room or space if the maintenance men are likely to dismantle the pipes or make any other operation likely to release the water of the ammonia or large quantities of gas.
Unmanned plant rooms connected to a control room activated continuously
17 specific applications, ln for example Chemical Substance seed), unexpected decline of refrigeration facilities triggered by the automatic shutdown of a refrigeration system in vegetables can optionally generate a threat. It may also be unlikely that this scenario should never occur in any property in the area of application. JA in these situations, the solitude of the electrical device by manual intervention might in the end be appropriate, provided that the detector/security program of alarm can be connected to a space of manned command in a coherent way straight. Additional activities started by the detector as the procedure in air flow of crisis could still become feasible. The approval of this treatment, when put to the judgment of vegetables offers automated been proven to finish by be not really feasible enough, will also require that:
(1) The Set alarm and monitoring of alarms (web browser the staffing of the Control Areas) is reasonable;
(2) services of appropriate insulation for the compressor and electrical appliances not insured cannot be obtained in a safe place; and
(3) as a secure program function is usually provided for their admission in the area of air compressor and the overall evaluation of the potential risk and any additional action required (e.g. insulation). Herb (observe paras 6-8 of this round for the personal security).
Allah is Great, Praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds. Teriring greetings and blessings to His Messenger, may tercurahkan Muhammad.
Allah says in the Qur’an what means, “Pray to the Lord, and kill the animal.” (QS. Al Kawthar: 2). Shaikh Abdullah Alu Bassaam said, “Some scholars commentators said, is the slaughter of animals are slaughtered animals / cattle sacrifice after prayers Eid Sacrifice / Eid al-Adha.” This opinion is quoted from Qatada, Atha ‘and Ikrimah (Taisirul’ Allaam, 534, Taudhihul Ahkaam IV / 450, & Saheeh Sunnah Fiqh II / 366).
Also Read: Jual Sapi Qurban
In terms of the science of jurisprudence then cattle sacrificial animals commonly called by the name of Al UDH-hiyah the plural Al Adhaahi. Sacrifice rituals and history of Understanding between UDH-hiyah Sacrifice (Arabic: قربن, transliteration: Sacrifice), also called UDH-hiyah or Dhahiyyah literally means animals slaughtered. While the sacrificial ritual is one of the rituals of worship of Muslims, which carried out the slaughter of cattle to be offered to God. Ritual sacrifice was performed in Dhu al-Hijjah in the Islamic calendar, which is on the 10th (day nahar) and 11,12 and 13 (day tasyrik) coinciding with the Eid al-Adha.
The same thing as the opinion of Shohibul Al Wajiz, and Saheeh Fiqh Sunnah UDH-hiyah is livestock slaughtered on the day of Eid al-Adha and the day Tasyriq in order to draw closer to God because of the arrival of the holidays (see Al Wajiz, 405 and Saheeh Fiqh Sunnah II / 366) basically views of history, sacrificial worship was done when the first man, the Prophet Adam was present in the world.
At that time Allah ordered two children of Adam to do a ritual sacrifice. One child prophet Adam is Abel, provide the best offering for sacrifice, while KOBIL bring the results of the farm that has been damaged and rotten that shows lack ikhlasannya in performing the ritual sacrifice that God commands, which led to non-acceptance of the sacrifice of his accomplishments, while Accepted is ritual Abel sacrifices made, and what do the former, show sincerity in executing commands that make sacrificial offerings accepted the sight of Allah.
In addition, the Sacrifice of Worship is also known by the Jews to prove the truth of a Prophet sent to them, so the tradition was abolished through the words of the prophet Isa bin Maryam. Similarly, human sacrifice is known by the religious traditions at the time of ancient Egypt, India, China, Iraq and others. Religious tradition in the history of human civilization as diverse as the offerings to God, such as the slaughter of animals to humans, but the sacrifices made by the two sons of Adam and the story of the sacrifice of the Jews, the ancient Egyptian was not a runway disyariatkannya slaughtering sacrificial animals in Islam, but its foundation is the history of sacrifice of Prophet Ibrahim AS. through a dream.
God had ordered Abraham to sacrifice his son of Hagar that Ishmael.
This event represents a sincere love and devotion that high of a servant to his Lord to let his own son to be sacrificed for the sake of running the command of his Lord, because he believes that Allah is Compassionate and Merciful, and God is fair that she was sure that God would not harm and His despotic. And it proved, when Abraham prepared to sacrifice his son, Allah sent a qibas while replacing Prophet Ismail. The story is told in the Qur’an Surah Ash-Shaaffaat paragraphs 102-109: “But when the son was aged adults and can be tried together Ibrahim, Ibrahim said:” O my son! I did I sacrifice, then consider what you think! “.
He said: “O my father, do what you are commanded; God willing you will find me of the steadfast. When they had both submitted and he laid his son on his temples, we cried and called him: “O Ibrahim! You have to believe that your dream. Thus indeed do We reward those who do good. Indeed, this really is the real test. And We ransomed him with a son (lamb) great sacrifice. And We left for him (praise) among those who came kemudian.kesejateraan salutation to Abraham. ” (QS. Ash-Shaaffaat, paragraphs 102-109).
In these verses, we can see the prophet Abraham. Delivering the dream to her. This is presumably because he understood that the order should not be declared as force it to the child. The important thing is that he wants to do. If it turns out the boy refused, then it is a matter for it by God, so Quraish Shihab said in his commentary. And Abraham was an example to us of the need always communication between father and son in unifying perceptions and paradigms before acting.
What was done by the Prophet Ibrahim to carry out God’s command that does not mean there are no barriers. The greatest enemy of mankind is Satan and the devil is always trying mengodanya, but he remained steadfast and patient, and then he threw Satan and the devil with pebbles, which ended this story into a series of pilgrimage during Eid sacrifice is known as throwing jumroh , That is the love and obedience of Abraham to his Lord as evidenced by the commandments of God despite the orders very heavy and had to sacrifice his beloved son.
That is the test that God gave to him to show us about love and obedience to God than his love for the material and temporal, be it property, children or wife. Previous Allah has tested Abraham who are elderly but have not been blessed with a child. Finally his wife, Sarah suggested that her husband to marry again.
Then Abraham to marry Hagar, a woman chosen by Sarah shalihah. Not long after that hajarpun pregnant, followed by the pregnancy of Sarah, Abraham’s first wife. Moments that awaited him was finally realized with the birth of Ishmael. But the test of God against his pious Prophet Ibrahim did not end there. After the birth of Ishmael, God tested Abraham by ordering him to leave his wife and children were still small in a very arid region, ie Baka valley (valley of tears). The valley is famous valley with kegersangannya and no pohonpun a growing and there is no water. So it is said that everyone who is in the valley that would cry.
So disebutlah valley by valley baka which means valley of tears. In a history that is said Hajar asked him three times, and his description of it left in the valley. Hajar said, “O husband, whether you are undertaking the command of Allah” The Prophet Ibrahim replied, “Yes, this is the command of Allah.” Hajar responded affirmatively without hesitation. “If it is the command of Allah, leave us. Because God will save his servant and will not menyengsarakannya “. Then take Ibrahim to leave his loved ones. However, Abraham’s love toward them, stopped this prayer and supplication to God … the Creator who loves His servants.
This prayer is enshrined in the Qur’an, “And (remember) when Ibrahim berdo`a: My Lord, make this a City of Peace, and feed its people with fruits among those who believe in God and a day later. Allah says: “And to the heathens who I gave a while, then I shall compel him to the doom of hell, and evil is the destination.” (Al-Baqarah: 126). While the establishment of a maqom Ibrahim Ibrahim near the House. After being abandoned by the Prophet Ibrahim, Prophet Ismail began to cry because of thirst under the scorching sun and heat.
Hajar as a mother, trying to find water for anaknya.Hajar then jogged between the two hills of Safa and Marwah. Hajar struggle is immortalized in the procession goes round. The procession goes round a symbol of love and the love of a mother for her child. That’s the story of Abraham’s family get a test from God and they are able to withstand the test. That piety of the Prophet Ibrahim, whose piety is not only its own, but is also owned by his wife and children, so that patience in the face of tests not only deal with by itself, but faced by the family. And the hardest test is the test of slaughter Ishmael the event was immortalized with religious ritual sacrifice performed by all Muslims worldwide.